In “Iran and Hezbollah’s Pre-Operational Modus Operandi in the West” (Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 13 May 2020), Ioan Pop, associate managing director at K2 Intelligence FIN, assesses Iran and Hezbollah pre-operational modus operandi in the West derived from court documents and open source reporting of recent arrests of Hezbollah and Iranian agents in the United States and abroad. According to the article, seven principles underpin the pre-operational modus operandi of Iran and Hezbollah:

  • Intelligence gathering and surveillance activities
  • Plausible diplomatic, business, education and other covers to conceal operational activities
  • Infiltration of Iranian dissident groups
  • Logistical planning for possible future attacks
  • Preparing “human target packages” to enable assassinating dissidents and adversaries
  • Counterintelligence tradecraft, and operational security
  • Recruiting operatives with dual nationalities and Western passports from the Shia diaspora.

Read more in Studies in Conflict & Terrorism (registration may be required).